Titanium - Applications
Titanium is completely protected from environmental attack, regardless of pollutants. Titanium lifespan is very long as compared to the other architectural metals that have limited life. It has the ability to withstand in the pollution of urban areas, marine environment and sulphur compounds of industrial areas. As it is considered the most noble metal, the galvanic corrosion of titanium does not increase even when it is coupled with dissimilar metals.
All these properties make titanium a suitable metal to use in below applications:
1. Aerospace Applications- During the invention of jet engine, titanium has been immensely utilized in new alloys and production techniques to meet the standards for strength, creep resistance, metallurgical structure and high temperature. Through the processes like electron beam cold hearth melting and triple melting, high quality titanium metal alloys can be achieved. These alloys are further used in aerospace applications like airframes and engines.
- Jet Engines- For rotating applications, titanium is used in jet engines. In the latest technological jet engines, wide chord fan blades made up of titanium increase the efficiency and reduce noise.
- Airframes- Innovative alloys have replaced nickel alloys & steel in landing gear and nacelle applications. By using these substitutes, the airframe manufacturers are able to reduce weight and improve the efficiency of aircraft. Through forged slab, the aircraft plates & sheets are hot rolled. For making the plates for flat, vacuum creep flattering process is utilized. The diffusion bonding & superplastic forming have increased the usage of titanium alloy sheets in latest airframes' designs.
Aircraft strips, in beta alloys & commercially pure grades are manufactured in the form of coils along with consistent vacuum annealing which assure low hydrogen content. With the introduction of every new design, the manufacturers are increasing the usage of titanium in airframes.
2. Industrial Applications- The significance and uses of titanium is increasing day by day in several industrial applications. Engineers have discovered that it can reduce the lifecycle costs of industrial equipment and processes as it has exceptionally high strength to weight ratio. When the equipment costs is calculated on the basis of per unit rather than per pound, it narrows the differential cost of material, this situation is known Titanium's favorable density. In other words, we can say that, about half titanium is needed for doing the same job on the basis of strength or the titanium with equal weight will go twice as far. For filling the gap, titanium do not require any kind of corrosion allowance, pressure or structural needs for the system which is the only criteria for wall thickness. The remaining higher front costs is regained due to reduced maintenance and enhanced manufacturing time.
Further, Titanium forms a very tight surface oxide layer which has excellent corrosion resistant ability. In the adverse environment, Titanium can last long as much as 5:1 as compared to other material. Thus, it has low failure rates to less downtime and reduce the need of maintenance therefore, lower the overall cost. Owing to all the properties, Titanium found its usage in numerous industries from chemical processing to power generation to desalination plants.
- Power Generation- Mostly saline, brackish and contaminated water is used as cooling medium in the power generation plants. But titanium thin wall condenser tubing will last long for almost 40 years and eliminate the requirement of corrosion allowance.
- Chemical Processing- Titanium is used for enhancing equipment's life in various chemical processing operations. It provide various advantages in terms of lifecycle cost over stainless steel grades, copper & nickel and initial cost over materials like tantalum, zirconium and high nickel alloys.
- Petroleum- In petroleum production & exploration, titanium pipes are used as they are light in weight and flexible which makes it an ideal material for deep sea production risers. Further, titanium is not affected by sea water thus, it is a preferable material for topside management systems. Since it shows no corrosion in salt water, it is utilized on the existing platforms in North Sea and become a prior choice for various desalination plants in the entire world.
- Other Industries- Titanium alloys has dozens of industrial uses such as PTA plants for polyester production, pressure vessels, hydrometallurgial autoclaves, flue gas desulphurisation for pollution control and heat exchangers. Each grade of Titanium can be tailored as per the specified operating conditions, alloy content for different corrosive agents, emphasizing strength for different pressures and ductility for different fabrication needs.
3. Emerging Applications- To develop, pursue, promote and support new usages of titanium is the focused area of titanium industry. By providing advance metallurgical designs & expertise, capital support and dependable metal supply, the titanium industry is supporting those organizations that are developing new uses of titanium.
- Computer Industry- In the computer industry, titanium is used as a substrate for hard disk drives. Titanium provides more advantages than aluminium which is the primary material. The various advantages of titanium include ability to withstand in heat which allows high temperature during coating procedures, non-magnetic property give prevention against interference in data storage process, improve production rates and the purity of titanium allows closer read or write head tolerances thus, enhance the capacity of disk.
- Automotive Industry- In the automotive sector, titanium is used in engine parts such as valves, valve retainers & springs, connecting rods, wrist pins, rocker arms and camshafts. Because of its strong, lightweight, durable and heat & corrosion resistant properties, it is ideal to used in the manufacturing of automobile spare parts. Instead titanium is more costly for these applications, it gives better performance and have long lifespan.
Further, titanium exhaust system is also produced for reducing weight and increasing longevity. With the utilization of titanium in the production of vehicles the efficiency of engine parts are improved and interior space of suspension parts are increased.
- Geothermal Power- Titanium found new applications in the geothermal power generation where electricity is generated through the caustic steam, released from the earth. Titanium has low lifecycle cost which provides significant savings than the other materials.
- Composites- Now, titanium is immensely used in the field of metal matrix composites. Titanium popularity and utilization grow rapidly because the cost of processing these light weighted and strong components are declined.
4. Specialized Applications- Titanium's unique combination of high strength, bio-compatibility, light weight and durability makes it perfect material to use in variety of non-traiditional applications.
- Human Implants- Titanium is totally motionless in human body fluids thus, it is ideal to use in medical replacement structures such as knee & hip implants. Titanium helps in bone growth in the implants so, they are long lasting than any other material. Today, reconstructive titanium plates & mesh are commonly used for supporting broken bones.
5. Armour Applications- Superior ballistic and high strength-to-weight ratio properties made titanium suitable for armour applications. It is used in the tanks and personnel carriers as a protective armour which makes the vehicles more lighter and increased the mobility of the force. Helmets and personal armour vests use by the police are made from titanium that are far lighter and comfortable than the other material.
6. Other Applications- The usage of titanium is also increasing rapidly in consumer goods such as bicycles, clocks, eye glasses, watch cases and jewelery. The gold industry has discovered that the club heads made from titanium can be bigger than those made up of steel.
Applications of Tantalum
Tantalum is known for its corrosion resistant property thus, widely used in various applications today. Further, it is chemically inactive as compared to other organic and inorganic compounds. Tantalum and glass both have similar corrosion resistant property which makes them unsuitable to use in strong hot alkali and hydrofluoric acid application purposes. Because of this reason, Tantalum is used along with glass-lined steel reactors in the form of Dip Tubes, Piping, Patches and Overhead Condensors.
Tantalum is inactive to hydrochloric & sulfuric acid in all concentrations below 300°F and it is commonly used up to 500°F. Tantalum do not affected by nitric acid in concentrations up to 98% and temperatures up to at least 212°F. Tantalum has appreciated for its totally inert properties by various industries. For over 40 years, Heat Exchanger installations are continuously taking place in multi-product research environment
Wide Range of Tantalum Applications
Some of the notable features of Tantalum such as workability, heat transfer ability and corrosion resistancy makes it ideal construction material to use in equipment and several industrial applications. Some of the most common type of Tantalum fabrication include Helical Coils, Pipe Spools, Valve Linings, Heat Exchangers, Condensers, Columns or Towers, Reactors and other compounds that are exposed to corrosive fluids. Tantalum can be processed into TEMA-type design Shell, Bayonet Heaters and Tube Heat Exchangers to in accordance to petrochemica l, chemical and pharmaceutical applications.
Tantalum is required when corrosion is a factor and increased life expectancy, profitability and long-term benefits of reduced downtime is important thus, for numerous applications it becomes the only choice.
Tantalum Outperforms Other Materials
In today's global economy, competition is increasing day by day. It is very important to control the cost of manufacturing efficiency, plant equipment and maintenance for survival. Chemical manufacturers have discovered that by increasing pressure and temperature, the efficiency also increased in many applications. Due to this the problem of corrosion is enhanced but it can be controlled by Tantalum.
Tantalum and Steel Pickling Applications
The largest cost is included in maintenance and downtime. Industry experts of pharmaceutical and steel pickling have experienced that to cope up with the increasing competition, you must indulge in production. There is no doubt that the world's best, most profitable and progressive pharmaceutical & steel pickling organizations are using Tantalum made equipment for solving the problems of corrosion.
The high initial cost of Tantalum equipment is balanced by its extremely low corrosion and long lifespan. The production efficiencies and life cycle costs of Titanium must be evaluated for global competitive manufacturing facilities.
Corrosion Resistance of Tantalum
(Mils Per Year)
|Media ||Concentration ||Temperature ||TA ||NB ||TI ||ZR< |
|Acetic Acid ||50% ||Boiling ||Nil ||Nil ||Nil ||Nil |
|Bromine ||Dry ||200°F ||Nil ||Nil ||Nil ||Nil |
|Chlorine ||Wet ||220°F ||Nil ||Nil ||Nil ||10 |
|Chromic Acid ||50% ||Boiling ||Nil ||1 ||>5 ||5 |
|HCL ||5% ||200°F ||Nil ||1 ||100 ||Nil |
|HCL ||30% ||200°F ||Nil ||5 ||100 ||Nil |
|Nitric Acid ||65% ||Boiling ||Nil ||Nil ||1 ||1 |
|Nitric Acid ||99% ||Boiling ||Nil ||Nil ||5 ||1 |
|Sodium Hydroxide ||10% ||Room ||Nil1 ||Nil1 ||Nil ||Nil |
|Sulfuric Acid ||40% ||Boiling ||Nil ||Nil ||5 ||3 |
|Sulfuric Acid ||98% ||400°F ||Nil ||5 ||50 ||200 |
Note: Material may become embrittled due to hydrogen attack.
On regular basis, Titan designs, engineers and fabricate the below enlisted Tantalum custom process equipments:
- Tantalum Columns
- Tantalum Condensers
- Tantalum Heat Exchangers
- Tantalum Pipe
- Tantalum Piping Systems
- Tantalum Pressure Vessels
- Tantalum Reactors
- Tantalum Spargers
Titan do not buy any kind of material from the conflict resources.
Tantalum caters several different applications in these industry categories:
- Fine Chemicals
- Steel Finishing
Tantalum goes well with many industrial processes, some of the environment in which it is fully resistant include:
Applications of Zirconium
Due to the corrosion-resistant property of Zirconium, it is widely used in the chemical processing industry. Zirconium have great corrosive resistant ability against organic & inorganic acids, strong alkalis, salt solutions and some molten salts. In particular applications of Zirconium, its unique corrosion resistant property extend its lifespan beyond the remainder of the plant. Similarly, downtime is minimized and the maintenance cost is reduced. In the chemical processing industry, Zirconium is used in Trays, Reactor Vessels, Pumps, Valves, Piping, Reboilers, Evaporators, Tanks and Packings.
The following are some of the chemicals that require Zirconium during the manufacturing of corrosion-resistant process equipments:
Acetic acid is the most basic component in a variety of organic materials including terephthalic acid,acetate esters, acetic anhydride and other pharmaceuticals. Amongst all the acetic acid solutions, Zirconium is the most corrosion resistant material.
Mainly formic acid is used in the production of dyes, pharmaceuticals and artificial flavors as it is more corrosive than acetic acid. The textile, rubber, pulp & paper and leather industries are also use formic acid in their process.
Nitric acid is one of the most important and widely used acids in the chemical processing industry. It is a basic material for producing ammonium nitrate for fertilizer and also used in numerous production processes such as processing of dyes, plastics, synthetic fibers, metal pickling, industrial explosives, and for recovering uranium.
Today, Sulfuric Acid is considered the most significant raw material in pharmaceutical and chemical industries. It is a strong dibasic acid which work as a reducer, an oxidizer and dehydrating agent.
In the chemical industry, sulfuric acid has found diverse applications such as it is used to manufacture nitrogen and phosphate based fertilizers. The organic chemical sector make use of sulfuric acid in the processing of detergents, dyes, isocyanates, plastics, soaps, pharmaceuticals, etc. whereas the inorganic branch utilizes sulfuric acid for producing aluminum sulfate, sodium sulfate, chromic and hydrofluoric acids. Furthermore, petrochemical sector utilizes it for alkylation and paraffin refining.
Many of the chemical plants utilizes sulfuric acid for more than one processes which results in severe corrosion problems. Every single process has its own distinct minor constituents that can change the entire way of metals corrode. Zirconium provides best results when work with sulfuric acid because Zirconium has very less corrosion rate if properly applied and the equipment life enhanced upto 20 years. Therefore, there is no requirement of corrosion maintenance & repairing and also, replacement cost and downtime do not exists. Also, the slightly high initial cost will be pay back quickly.
Titan on regular basis, designs, engineers and produce the following Zirconium made customized process equipment:
- Zirconium Columns
- Zirconium Condensers
- Zirconium Pipe
- Zirconium Piping Systems
- Zirconium Pressure Vessels
- Zirconium Reactors
- Zirconium Spargers
- Zirconium Heat Exchangers
Zirconium is widely used for many different applications in these industry categories:
- Chemical Process
- LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas)
- Nuclear Power
- Oil & Gas
- Sea Water
- Solar Power
- Water Desalination
Zirconium is very well suited to numerous industrial applications. Below listed are the environments in which Zirconium is fully resistant:
- Acetic Acid
- Acetic Anhydride
- Aluminum Chloride
- Ammonium Sulfate
- Aniline Hydrochloride
- Barium Chloride
- Calcium Chloride
- Carbon Tetrachloride
- Chloroacetic Acid
- Citric Acid
- Formic Acid
- Hydrochloric Acid
- Hydrogen Peroxide
- Lactic Acid
- Magnesium Chloride
- Mercuric Chloride
- Nitric Acid
- Phosphoric Acids
- Potassium Chloride
- Sodium Chloride
- Sodium Hydroxide
- Stannic Chloride
- Sulfuric Acid
- Tannic Acid
- Zinc Chloride
Uses of Nickel
Products containing nickel or its elements are used by us in our day to day lives. As compared to other material, products having nickel are more resistant against corrosion, have greater toughness, high strength at low & high temperature and contains special electronic & magnetic properties. Therefore, mostly nickel is used to produce coatings, batteries, alloying elements, mobile phones, medical equipment, transport, buildings, kitchen wares, power generation and jewellery.
Nickel is also utilized for producing ferronickel for stainless steel (66%), alloy steels (5%), plating (7%), foundry (3%), non-ferrous alloys (12%) and batteries (2%).
Nickel can used with coppers, chromium, aluminum, lead, steels, irons,, cobalt, silver, gold and other elements so to make cast irons, inconel, incoloy, monel, nimonic, stainless steels and other alloys. Detailed alloys classifications include:
Ferrous alloys comprises low alloy steels, cast irons, stainless steels and some specialty steels. These alloys are used in chemical plants, coinage, gas turbines and marine engineering. Non-ferrous alloys such as copper is used immensely in the form of monel, nickel brasses and bronzes. The products in which they are utilized are fishing boats, working boats, propellers, crankshafts and hulls of premium tugboats.
Further, nickel based alloys comprises Ni-base corrosion resistant alloy, Ni-base wear-resistant alloy, Ni-based precision alloy, Ni-base shape memory alloy, Ni-base superalloy and Hydrogen storing alloy. All these alloys are found their applications in chemical, electronics, medicine, aviation, shipbuilding, and energy industries. Apart, nickel powder is used in the production of powder metallurgy (P/M) alloys.
Nickel coatings is also known as electroplated nickel which is used for providing engineering coatings such as nickel-plating, electroless nickel coating or electroforming and hard wearing decorative. When it is used with a top layer of chronium, it is considered as chrome-plating. When combined with silicon carbide, the process is called composite plating such as coating of coins.
Nickel is also used as a crucial part of various rechargeable battery systems used in power tools, transport, electronics and emergency power supply. One of the most significant usage is nickel-metal hydride (NiMH).
Catalyst- Nickel is a key to various important chemical reactions such as reforming of hydrocarbons, production of fertilizers, hydrogenation of vegetable oils, pesticides and fungicides. Nickel is also used for binders, filters etc.
Uses of Nickel
The largest application area of Niobium is where high strength and low alloy steel production is required and where it brings corrosion-resistant & high temperature strength in automobile components, gas pipelines and structural steel. Niobium like tantalum is worked as an electrolytic valve which allows alternative current to pass through it but only in one direction through an electrolytic cell. Niobium is also used in the arc welding rods for the stabilized grades of stainless steel and apart from this, it is also utilized in advance air frame systems.
The most interesting application of Niobium is in the field of superconductivity. The superconductive magnets are made up of Nb-Zr (niobium and zirconium) wires which have the ability to remain superconductive in strong magnetic fields. Other alloys of Niobium like aluminium and tin are also superconductive in nature. Pure form of Niobium is also superconductive in itself when it is cooled below the temperature of 9.25 K (-263.9°C). Due to this property, Niobium is used to make jewelry and in lamp filaments. Also, Niobium can be colored through an electrolytic process.
Niobium pentoxide (Nb2O5) is having the ability to improve the refractive index of optical glass thus, suitable for eyeglasses, advance optics, camera lenses and thinner & lighter lenses. Niobium and niobium oxides are emerged as a dielectric material for electronic capacitors.
Applications of Niobium with Different Products
Ferro-niobium- Niobium steel and stainless steel are used in car & truck bodies, architectural needs, tool steels, ships' hulls, oil & gas pipelines, railroad tracks, etc.